Saudi Arabia Population: 28,160,273

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 History
Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and home to Islam's two holiest shrines in Mecca and Medina. The king's official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi state was founded in 1932 by ABD AL-AZIZ bin Abd al-Rahman Al SAUD (Ibn Saud) after a 30-year campaign to unify most of the Arabian Peninsula. One of his male descendants rules the country today, as required by the country's 1992 Basic Law. Following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, Saudi Arabia accepted the Kuwaiti royal family and 400,000 refugees while allowing Western and Arab troops to deploy on its soil for the liberation of Kuwait the following year. The continuing presence of foreign troops on Saudi soil after the liberation of Kuwait became a source of tension between the royal family and the public until all operational US troops left the country in 2003. Major terrorist attacks in May and November 2003 spurred a strong ongoing campaign against domestic terrorism and extremism. From 2005 to 2015, King ABDALLAH incrementally modernized the Kingdom. Driven by personal ideology and political pragmatism, he introduced a series of social and economic initiatives, including expanding employment and social opportunities for women, attracting foreign investment, increasing the role of the private sector in the economy, and discouraging businesses from hiring foreign workers. Saudi Arabia saw protests during the 2011 Arab Spring among Shia Muslims in the Eastern Province, who protested primarily against the detention of political prisoners, endemic discrimination, and Bahraini and Saudi Government actions in Bahrain. Riyadh took a cautious but firm approach by arresting some protesters but releasing most of them quickly and by using its state-sponsored clerics to counter political and Islamist activism. In addition, protests were met by a strong police presence, with some arrests, but not the level of bloodshed seen in protests elsewhere in the region. The government held its first-ever elections in 2005 and 2011, when Saudis went to the polls to elect municipal councilors. In December 2015, women were allowed to vote and stand as candidates for the first time in municipal council elections, with 21 women winning seats. King SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud ascended to the throne in 2015 and placed the first next-generation prince, MUHAMMAD BIN NAIF bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud, in the line of succession as Crown Prince. He designated his son, MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud, as the Deputy Crown Prince. In March 2015, Saudi Arabia led a coalition of 10 countries in a military campaign to restore the government of Yemen, which had been ousted by Huthi forces allied with former president ALI ABDULLAH al-Salih. The war in Yemen has led to civilian casualties and shortages of basic supplies, which has drawn considerable international criticism. In December 2015, Deputy Crown Prince MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN announced Saudi Arabia would lead a 34-nation Islamic Coalition to fight terrorism. In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed 47 people on charges of terrorism, including Shia Muslim cleric NIMR al-Nimr. Iranian protesters overran Saudi diplomatic facilities in Iran to protest al-NIMR’s execution and the Saudi government responded by cutting off diplomatic ties with Iran.

 Geography
Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the world without a river; extensive coastlines on the Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through the Persian Gulf and Suez Canal
Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, north of Yemen
Geographic coordinates: 25 00 N, 45 00 E
Area: total: 2,149,690 sq km
land: 2,149,690 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than one-fifth the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 4,272 km border countries (7): Iraq 811 km, Jordan 731 km, Kuwait 221 km, Oman 658 km, Qatar 87 km, UAE 457 km, Yemen 1,307 km
Coastline: 2,640 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: not specified
Climate: harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes
Terrain: mostly sandy desert
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper
Land use: agricultural land: 80.7% arable land 1.5%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 79.1% forest: 0.5%
other: 18.8% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 16,200 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent sand and dust storms volcanism: despite many volcanic formations, there has been little activity in the past few centuries; volcanoes include Harrat Rahat, Harrat Khaybar, Harrat Lunayyir, and Jabal Yar
Current Environment Issues: desertification; depletion of underground water resources; the lack of perennial rivers or permanent water bodies has prompted the development of extensive seawater desalination facilities; coastal pollution from oil spills
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Saudi(s)
adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Ethnic groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Languages: Arabic (official)
Religions: Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)

note: despite having a large expatriate community of various faiths (more than 30% of the population), most forms of public religious expression inconsistent with the government-sanctioned interpretation of Sunni Islam are restricted; non-Muslims are not allowed to have Saudi citizenship and non-Muslim places of worship are not permitted (2013)
Population: 28,160,273 (July 2016 est.) note: immigrants make up more than 30% of the total population, according to UN data (2015)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.56% (male 3,835,472/female 3,644,041)
15-24 years: 18.85% (male 2,843,422/female 2,465,027)
25-54 years: 46.4% (male 7,401,654/female 5,663,769)
55-64 years: 4.86% (male 747,307/female 620,100)
65 years and over: 3.34% (male 478,244/female 461,237) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45.9%
youth dependency ratio: 41.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.2%
potential support ratio: 24% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.2 years
male: 27.9 years
female: 26.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.46% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 18.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 3.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 83.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: RIYADH (capital) 6.195 million; Jeddah 4.076 million; Mecca 1.771 million; Medina 1.28 million; Ad Dammam 1.064 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.31 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.21 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female
total population: 1.19 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.3 years male: 73.2 years
female: 77.4 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.11 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 23.8% (2007)
Health expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.49 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 97% of population
total: 97% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3% of population
rural: 3% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 33.7% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.7%
male: 97%
female: 91.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 17 years
female: 15 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 30.4% male: 21.4%
female: 57.9% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
conventional short form: Saudi Arabia
local long form: Al Mamlakah al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
local short form: Al Arabiyah as Suudiyah
etymology: named after the ruling dynasty of the country, the House of Saud; the name "Arabia" can be traced back many centuries B.C., the ancient Egyptians referred to the region as "Ar Rabi"
Government type: absolute monarchy
Capital: name: Riyadh
geographic coordinates: 24 39 N, 46 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 13 provinces (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah); Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah (Northern Border), Al Jawf, Al Madinah (Medina), Al Qasim, Ar Riyad (Riyadh), Ash Sharqiyah (Eastern), 'Asir, Ha'il, Jazan, Makkah (Mecca), Najran, Tabuk
Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification of the kingdom)
National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)
Constitution: 1 March 1992 - Basic Law of Government, issued by royal decree, serves as the constitutional framework and is based on the Qur'an and the life and tradition of the Prophet Muhammad
Legal system: Islamic (sharia) legal system with some elements of Egyptian, French, and customary law; note - several secular codes have been introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees
Suffrage: 21 years of age; male; male and female for municipal elections
Executive branch: chief of state: King and Prime Minister SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN NAYIF bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 30 August 1959); Deputy Crown Prince and Second Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: King and Prime Minister SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 23 January 2015); Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN NAYIF bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 30 August 1959); Crown Prince and Second Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (born 31 August 1985)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch every 4 years and includes many royal family members elections/appointments: none; the monarchy is hereditary; note - an Allegiance Council created by royal decree in October 2006 established a committee of Saudi princes to a role in selecting future Saudi kings
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (150 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms); note - in early 2013, the monarch granted women 30 seats on the Council
Judicial branch: highest court(s): High Court (consists of the court chief and organized into circuits with 3-judge panels except the criminal circuit, which has a 5-judge panel for cases involving major punishments) judge selection and term of office: High Court chief and chiefs of the High Court Circuits appointed by royal decree following the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council, a 10-member body of high-level judges and other judicial heads; new judges and assistant judges serve 1- and 2- year probations, respectively, before permanent assignment

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; Specialized Criminal Court, first-degree courts composed of general, criminal, personal status, and commercial courts; Labor Court; a hierarchy of administrative courts
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: gas companies; religious groups
International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB (nonregional member), AFESD, AMF, BIS, CAEU, CP, FAO, G-20, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): palm tree surmounting two crossed swords; national colors: green, white
National anthem: name: "Aash Al Maleek" (Long Live Our Beloved King)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim KHAFAJI/Abdul Rahman al-KHATEEB

note: music adopted 1947, lyrics adopted 1984
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador ABDALLAH bin Faysal bin Turki bin Abdallah Al Saud (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 342-3800
FAX: [1] (202) 944-5983
consulate(s) general: Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph William WESTPHAL (since 26 March 2014)
embassy: Collector Road M, Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh
mailing address: American Embassy, Unit 61307, APO AE 09803-1307; International Mail: P. O. Box 94309, Riyadh 11693
telephone: [966] (11) 488-3800
FAX: [966] (11) 488-7360
consulate(s) general: Dhahran, Jiddah (Jeddah)
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 Economy
Saudi Arabia has an oil-based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses about 16% of the world's proven petroleum reserves, ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 87% of budget revenues, 42% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. Saudi Arabia is encouraging the growth of the private sector in order to diversify its economy and to employ more Saudi nationals. Over 6 million foreign workers play an important role in the Saudi economy, particularly in the oil and service sectors; at the same time, however, Riyadh is struggling to reduce unemployment among its own nationals. Saudi officials are particularly focused on employing its large youth population, which generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs. In 2015, the Kingdom incurred a budget deficit estimated at 13% of GDP, and it faces a deficit of $87 billion in 2016, which will be financed by bond sales and drawing down reserves. Although the Kingdom can finance high deficits for several years by drawing down its considerable foreign assets or by borrowing, it has announced plans to cut capital spending in 2016. Some of these plans to cut deficits include introducing a value-added tax and reducing subsidies on electricity, water, and petroleum products. In January 2016, Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister MUHAMMAD BIN SALMAN announced that Saudi Arabia intends to list shares of its state-owned petroleum company, ARAMCO - another move to increase revenue and outside investment. The government has also looked at privatization and diversification of the economy more closely in the wake of a diminished oil market. Historically, Saudi Arabia has focused diversification efforts on power generation, telecommunications, natural gas exploration, and petrochemical sectors. More recently, the government has approached investors about expanding the role of the private sector in the healthcare, education and tourism industries. While Saudi Arabia has emphasized their goals of diversification for some time, current low oil prices may force the government to make more drastic changes ahead of their long-run timeline.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.731 trillion (2016 est.) $1.711 trillion (2015 est.) $1.653 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $637.8 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (2016 est.) 3.5% (2015 est.) 3.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $54,100 (2016 est.) $54,500 (2015 est.) $53,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 25% of GDP (2016 est.) 26.4% of GDP (2015 est.) 38.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 42.3%
government consumption: 29.6%
investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
investment in inventories: 5.9%
exports of goods and services: 30.7%
imports of goods and services: -38% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 42.3%
government consumption: 29.6%
investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
investment in inventories: 5.9%
exports of goods and services: 30.7%
imports of goods and services: -38% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk
Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals, ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics, metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction
Industrial production growth rate: 0.6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 12.02 million note: about 80% of the labor force is non-national (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6.7%
industry: 21.4%
services: 71.9% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11.2% (2016 est.) 11.4% (2015 est.) note: data are for Saudi males only (local bank estimates; some estimates are as high as 25%)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.9 (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: $149.7 billion
expenditures: $236.7 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 31% of GDP (2016 est.) 15% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (2016 est.) 2.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$42.28 billion (2016 est.) -$53.48 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $205.3 billion (2016 est.) $202.3 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 90% (2012 est.)
Exports - partners: China 13.2%, Japan 10.9%, US 9.6%, India 9.6%, South Korea 8.5% (2015)
Imports: $157.7 billion (2016 est.) $155 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles
Imports - partners: China 13.9%, US 12.7%, Germany 7.1%, South Korea 6.1%, India 4.5%, Japan 4.4%, UK 4.3% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $553.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $616.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $200.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $169.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $258.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $250.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $42.95 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $37.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $421.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $483.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $467.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SAR) per US dollar - 3.75 (2016 est.) 3.75 (2015 est.) 3.75 (2014 est.) 3.75 (2013 est.) 3.75 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 293 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 272 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 66 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 10.05 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 7.416 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 269 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.884 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 3.141 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.45 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 497,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 102.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 102.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 8.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 594 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 52.796 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 190 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern system including a combination of extensive microwave radio relays, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables

domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly

international: country code - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; microwave r (2015)
Broadcast media: broadcast media are state-controlled; state-run TV operates 4 networks; Saudi Arabia is a major market for pan-Arab satellite TV broadcasters; state-run radio operates several networks; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .sa
Internet users: total: 19.32 million percent of population: 69.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 214 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 82
over 3,047 m: 33
2,438 to 3,047 m: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 27
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 132

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 72
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 16 (2013)
Heliports: 10 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 209 km; gas 2,940 km; liquid petroleum gas 1,183 km; oil 5,117 km; refined products 1,151 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,378 km
standard gauge: 1,378 km 1.435-m gauge (with branch lines and sidings) (2014)
Roadways: total 221,372 km
paved: 47,529 km (includes 3,891 km of expressways)
unpaved: 173,843 km (2006)
Merchant marine: total 72

by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 25, container 4, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 20, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 7

foreign-owned: 15 (Egypt 1, Greece 4, Kuwait 4, UAE 6)

registered in other countries: 55 (Bahamas 16, Dominica 2, Liberia 20, Malta 2, Norway 3, Panama 11, Tanzania 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jeddah, Yanbu al Bahr container port(s) (TEUs): Ad Dammam (1,492,315), Jeddah (4,010,448)
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 Military
Military branches: Ministry of Defense: Royal Saudi Land Forces, Royal Saudi Naval Forces (includes Marine Forces and Special Forces), Royal Saudi Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Malakiya as-Sa'udiya), Royal Saudi Air Defense Forces, Royal Saudi Strategic Rocket Forces, Ministry of the National Guard (SANG) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 12.6% of GDP (2015 planned) 10.7% of GDP (2014 planned) 9.4% of GDP (2013) 7.98% of GDP (2012) 7.25% of GDP (2011) 7.98% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 30,000 (Yemen) (2016)
stateless persons: 70,000 (2015); note - thousands of biduns (stateless Arabs) are descendants of nomadic tribes who were not officially registered when national borders were established, while others migrated to Saudi Arabia in search of jobs; some have temporary identification cards that must be renewed every five years, but their rights remain restricted; most Palestinians have only legal resident status; some naturalized Yemenis were made stateless after being stripped of their passports when Yemen backed Iraq in its invasion of Kuwait in 1990; Saudi women cannot pass their citizenship on to their children, so if they marry a non-national, their children risk statelessness
Illicit drugs: regularly enforces the death penalty for drug traffickers, with foreigners being convicted and executed disproportionately; improving anti-money-laundering legislation and enforcement
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